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1.LANDFILL GAS RECOVERY
2.BIOGAS/ORGANIC BIOMASS FERMENTATION SYSTEMS
3.WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT DIGESTER GAS
4.LIVESTOCK AND DAIRY ON-FARM BIOGAS RECOVERY
5.ETHANOL PRODUCTION AND REFINING
6.COAL MINE METHANE RECOVERY
7.BIOMASS GASIFICATION
8.FLARE GAS MEASUREMENT
9.FLUE GAS MONITORING
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LANDFILL GAS RECOVERY
Landfills produce a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide with traces of nitrogen, oxygen and other gases. These gases are extracted from multiple wellheads and collected through a network of pipes to a common header pipe. Typical systems also involve blowers, pumps, knock-out pots and a flare or oxidizer. The collected “greenhouse gas” may be disposed of or recovered as a fuel source for a co-generation engine to produce electric power. An accurate measurement of the landfill gas flow through the system provides operators with information on the amount of gas being extracted for optimizing effectiveness, for reporting to environmental agencies and for carbon credit programs.
Key Criteria For Flow Meter Selection
- Accurate and calibrated for mixed methane, landfill gas composition
- Temperature compensation
- No moving parts to clog or foul in the presence of wet, dirty gas
- Lowest cost and easiest to install in larger line sizes
- Wide turndown for accurate, repeatable measurement over wide flow range
- Excellent low flow sensitivity
- Agency approved for use in Division 2 [Zone 2] and often Division 1 [Zone 1] hazardous environments
- Multi-function: flow rate, totalized flow and temperature display outputs
Organic industrial waste from food processing and slaughterhouses, food waste from restaurants and homes, manure collected from livestock, as well as energy crops can be digested in anerobic conditions in reactor tanks, also called fermentation towers.

The output from this biomass digestion process is biogas, a mixture of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), water and trace hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The entire process involves gas creation, cleansing, storage (tank or bag-type accumulator), and ultimately the use of biogas as a fuel source for heating or generating electricity. A ground flare is an integral part of the safety system for the process. Measuring biogas flow at several points in the system provides operators with critical information for optimal gas production, control, safety and reporting.

Biogas applications present several challenges in selecting the proper flow meter:
– Low flow sensitivity during start-up and for seasonal changes which produce lower flow rates
– Temperature compensation for correct readings in varying temperatures
– Calibration for mixed gas composition of CH4 + CO2 + trace gases
– Wet, dirty gas with corrosive H2S content
– Potentially flammable or explosive gas installation environment
– Easy, low cost installation and low maintenance
BIOGAS/ORGANIC BIOMASS
F E R M E N T A T I O N   S Y S T E M S
[CASE STUDY] Klärgastechnik Deutschland GmbH is a leading engineering designer, manufacturer and installer of biogas and digester gas processing systems headquartered in Germany. After extensive testing and evaluation of various flow metering technologies, Klärgastechnik Deutschland GmbH selected and standardized FCI ST98 and ST51 flow meters for use within their gas systems. Klärgastechnik Deutschland GmbH found that FCI’s no moving parts to plug or foul design, low pressure drop, biogas-specific calibration, hot tap ball valve installation and agency safety approvals provided the best engineered and most economical solution. Additionally, with FCI’s years of experience in biogas and digester gas applications, installations and ability to provide global service support, Klärgastechnik Deutschland GmbH was assured of delivering the highest level of satisfaction to their customers worldwide.
Key Criteria For Flow Meter Selection
- Mass flow measuring of both rate and totalized flow
- No moving parts or small holes to clog or foul in dirty or wet gas environments
- Biogas-specific calibration
- Low flow sensitivity, at least 0.6 FPS [0,2 m/s] and wide turn-down of 100:1
- Pressure drop over flow element should be limited to 0.01Psi [1 mBar]
- All wetted parts resistant to H2S corrosion; minimum of 316L stainless steel
- Easy and safe removal under line pressure with simple ball valve
- System agency approvals for safe installation in Division 2 [Zone 2] or Division 1 [Zone 1]
Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) digester processes produce digester gas, a combination of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) with a small percentage of other trace gases.

The gas composition can vary with the process and temperature (e.g. seasonally) but a typical average is in the 65% (±5%) CH4 35% (±5%) CO2 range.

Digester gas is also a wet and dirty gas, typically containing entrained hydrogen sulfides, which condense and deposit on pipe walls and anything else in the pipe.

Modern WWTP processes incorporate digester gas flow measurement for:
– Data on digester process performance and control
– Compliance with environmental regulations to report, control and reduce greenhouse gas emissions
– Data for greenhouse gas reduction or carbon credits
– Process control of co-generation systems using digester gas as fuel source

FCI is also the WWTP industry’s leading supplier of thermal dispersion flow measuring instruments for aeration systems, gas disinfection systems and pump flow assurance applications.
WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT
D I G E S T E R   G A S
In municipal and industrial Wastewater Treatment operations throughout the world, FCI digester gas flow meters are the industry’s most installed solution. WWTP engineers have standardized FCI product use because they have been proven to deliver superior calibrated accuracy for digester gases. FCI’s unique constant power technology delivers the most repeatable measurements and lowest maintenance solution.
Key Criteria For Flow Meter Selection
- No moving parts to clog or foul
- Simple threaded insertion for easy installation and easy wipe-off cleaning
- Wide turndown for accurate low and high flow rate measuring
- Agency approved for use in Division 2 [Zone 2] and often Division 1 [Zone 1] hazardous environments
- Specifically calibrated for digester gas compositions.
- Direct mass flow measuring
- Temperature compensated flow measurement for accuracy and repeatability in changing ambient and process gas temperatures.
Decomposition of livestock waste and other agricultural operations are a major source of methane rich biogas being harvested as fuel gas. Rather than emit greenhouse gases into the environment, modern farm operations invest in a digester system to recover gases and reduce emissions. Recovered gases are used to fuel co-generation engines to power the facility, and often excess power is sold to the local electric power grid. Clean energy development credits (CDM) and certified emission reduction (CER) programs offer additional incentives to implement recovery systems. In all biogas recovery systems, measuring flow rate is required to ensure effective and efficient operation of the digester process as well as providing tangible evidence of saved emissions in order to receive credits and incentives.

Biogas applications present several challenges in selecting the proper flow meter:
– Low flow sensitivity during start-up, and for seasonal changes which produce lower flow rates
– Temperature compensation for correct readings in varying temperatures
– Calibration for mixed gas composition of methane (CH4) + carbon dioxide (CO2) + trace gases
– Wet, dirty gas with corrosive hydrogen sulfide (H2S) content
LIVESTOCK AND DAIRY ON-FARM
B I O G A S   R E C O V E R Y
In addition to recovering gases to be used as fuel for the facility, biogas farming and ranching operations are rewarded with incentives such as carbon offsets and credit trading, clean energy development credits (CDM) and certified emission reduction (CER) programs.

Bos Farms and Fair Oaks Dairy Farms are innovative, major farm operations located in Indiana USA, utilizing FCI gas flow meters in their biogas recovery systems.
Key Criteria For Flow Meter Selection
- Mass flow measuring of both rate and totalized flow
- No moving parts or small holes to clog or foul in dirty or wet gas environments
- Biogas-specific calibration
- Low flow sensitivity, at least 0.6 FPS [0,2 m/s] and wide turn-down of 100:1
- Pressure drop over flow element should be limited to 0.01Psi [1 mBar]
- All wetted parts resistant to H2S corrosion; minimum of 316L stainless steel
- Easy and safe removal under line pressure with simple ball valve
- System agency approvals for safe installation in Division 2 [Zone 2] or Division 1 [Zone 1]
As costs of fossil fuels continue to climb and air pollution reduction regulations become more stringent, the production of ethanol fuel and fuel supplements grows. At the forefront of ethanol production is the need to continuously improve processes and reduce costs to maximize effectiveness and efficiency.

Ethanol production is a distillation process which involves boilers. Efficiency is optimized with measurement and control of air-to-fuel mixtures/ratios. The process may also utilize catalytic or thermal oxidizers to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases or VOCs.

Accurate air and gas flow measurements in large pipes or duct applications are challenged by distorted flow profiles and swirls, varying air temperatures, installation costs, and accessibility for maintenance.

Measuring gases vented from the process can provide information about process inefficiencies or other problems. Further, measurement and reporting may be mandated by local air pollution regulations.
ETHANOL PRODUCTION
A N D   R E F I N I N G
[CASE STUDY] ADM and Cargill are two major producers and refiners of ethanol fuels and fuel additives who count on FCI mass flow meters to optimize their operations. Both companies have improved and optimized process combustion efficiency with the installation of FCI flow meters on air and natural gas supplies.
Key Criteria For Flow Meter Selection
- Temperature compensated flow measurement for accuracy and repeatability in changing ambient and process gas temperatures
- Easy to install and cost effective in large diameter pipes
- Non-clogging, no moving parts design for low maintenance
- Wide turndown for accurate low and high flow rate measuring
- Multi-parameter – flow rate, totalized flow and temperature in a single device
- Calibration matched to specific gas and application
- Multi-point sensing for accuracy in large pipes, stacks and ducts with distorted and/or swirling flow profiles
- Flow conditioning for limited straight-run application
An emerging application gaining attention from stakeholders in mining operations and from environmentalists is coal mine methane recovery. It has been estimated that 8% of the world’s anthropogenic methane air pollution is a by-product of coal mining.

There are three major sources of coal mine methane (CMM): degasification systems (drainage) both pre-mine and gob; ventilation air (VAM); and abandon or closed mines. As technology, economics, environmental regulations and greenhouse gas reduction incentives increase, this gas is increasingly being captured and used as a fuel source. Gas flow meters are required to comply with regulations, to ensure efficient operation of co-gen engines or methane oxidizers, and to provide data for incentive credits.

Depending on the source application, concentration of methane in the extracted gas can be as little as 1% (e.g. VAM) to more than 20% in drainage systems. Other components in the gas include air, carbon dioxide (CO2) and/or nitrogen (N2) in various combinations depending on the site and source. Therefore proper flow meter calibration matched to the actual gas mix is critical for accurate performance. Additional considerations and challenges in this application include safe installation in an explosive atmosphere, low power consumption, low flow sensitivity and ease of installation in a variety of pipe sizes and locations.
COAL MINE METHANE
R E C O V E R Y
Global activity for coal mine methane recovery continues to grow. Numerous projects and various technologies are being tested and deployed around the world to capture and utilize this methane as a fuel source. Whether to maximize the process or report actual methane captured, measuring methane flow is integral to ensuring the success of this process. FCI provides the accurate, reliable and safe flow metering solution for flow rate and total flow.

FCI thermal dispersion flow meters, in both insertion and in-line styles, are ideal for application in CMM recovery. They address all of the key criteria and solve the challenges of the application to provide an accurate, highly repeatable and cost effective solution. FCI calibration laboratory ensures a meter calibration matched to gas composition. FCI flow meters have global agency approvals on the complete instrument for installations in hazardous/explosive environments.
Key Criteria For Flow Meter Selection
- Mass flow measuring of both rate and totalized flow
- No moving parts or small holes to clog or foul in dirty or wet gas environments
- Biogas-specific calibration
- Low flow sensitivity, at least 0.6 FPS [0,2 m/s] and wide turn-down of 100:1
- Pressure drop over flow element should be limited to 0.01Psi [1 mBar]
- All wetted parts resistant to H2S corrosion; minimum of 316L stainless steel
- Easy and safe removal under line pressure with simple ball valve
- System agency approvals for safe installation in Division 2 [Zone 2] or Division 1 [Zone 1]
For accurate and efficient process control, biomass gasification requires measurement and control of fuel, inlet air and measurement of the extract gas (outlet).

The biomass gasification process produces a mixed composition gas consisting primarily of hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) with trace methane (CH4).

The extracted gas stream will also contain water, tar or ash, so typical systems include a separator tank to remove these elements.

Biomass gasification applications present several challenges in selecting the proper flow meter:
– Ease of installation in a variety of pipe sizes and locations
– Extracted gas may be wet, dirty and/or heated
– Calibration for mixed gas composition of hydrogen (H2) + carbon monoxide (CO) + methane (CH4)
– Mass flow with limited pipe run to add pressure and temperature sensors
– Potentially flammable or explosive gas installation environment
BIOMASS GASIFICATION
Whether updraft, downdraft, fluid-bed, circulating fluidbed, entrained flow or other technologies for biomass gasification, FCI flow and level measurement solutions are installed throughout the process for optimization and control.
Key Criteria For Flow Meter Selection
- Accurate and calibrated for mixed gas composition
- Easy to install and cost effective in large diameter pipes
- Non-clogging, no moving parts design for low maintenance
- Wide turndown for wide range flow measurement
- Safe for use in potentially explosive gas installation environment
- Direct mass flow measurement
FCI has been a leading provider of flare gas flow meter solutions for more than two decades. FCI flow meters are installed in both landbased and offshore platform flare systems throughout the world.

Whether your flares are single-line or a large flaring system with a complex array of tributary lines and mixed gases, there is an FCI solution. From superior low flow measurement to detect the smallest leaks and up to 1000 SFPS [305 NMPS] to accurately measure major upset conditions at very high flows, FCI ST100 Series flow meters are your best solution.

Flaring systems are used to burn-off waste or off-gases in both normal and upset process conditions. Many processes are outfitted with relief valves to safely vent process gases to the flare system under upset conditions. Flare systems can be a simple single pipe run or a complex series of feeder and header pipes. All flares are highly scrutinized as a source of air pollution and often subjected to stringent regulation to measure, record and report the amount of flared gases and to show continuous improvement to reduce the amount produced.

Flare gas applications present several challenges in selecting the proper flow meter:
– Both low flow and high flow conditions – low flow sensitivity is critical to capture leaking relief valves, while very high flows occur in upset conditions
– Mixed gases – flow meter calibration specifically for hydrocarbon mixed composition gases that match process conditions
– Installation ease and maintenance
FLARE GAS MEASUREMENT
M O N I T O R I N G & L E A K D E T E C T I O N
FCI thermal dispersion flow meters in an insertion-style configuration provide the preferred engineering solution. In addition to meeting all of the above requirements, FCI flow meters have comprehensive agency approvals for hazardous locations, feature robust transmitter electronics in rugged enclosure, hot-tap installation options, and VeriCal™ – an industry exclusive in-situ calibration verification option.

Additionally, these FCI flow meters are direct mass flow measuring so that unlike volumetric flow techniques, there are no additional sensors to be purchased or installed to obtain mass flow.

You will find FCI flow meters installed throughout flaring systems around the world. Refineries, both chemical and petrochemical, have applied FCI flow meters as part of their process control, alarm, leak detection, and emissions monitoring and reporting systems. These companies include Dow, BP, ConocoPhillips, Chevron, Motiva, Shell, Aramco, Valero, Total, Petrobras, Pemex, Sinopec, Petronas, Exxonmobil & etc.
Key Criteria For Flow Meter Selection
- Accurate and calibrated for mixed composition gases
- Multiple calibrations for variations in composition
- Mass flow measurement
- Easy to install, single penetration
- Non-clogging, no moving parts design for low maintenance
- Safe for use in potentially explosive gas installation environment
Flue gases are the general name given to the mixed composition gases that are the by-product of a combustion process. A flue is typically a large pipe, duct, stack, chimney or other venting attached to a process system such as a boiler, furnace, steam generator, oven, etc. through which waste flue gases are exhausted from the combustion process.

Flue gases are exhausted from many processes including metals operations, chemical, food processing, petroleum processing, pharmaceutical productions, paper plants, power plants and boilers. FCI’s single- or multi-point flow meters offer accurate and cost effective solutions to flue gas measurement.

Depending on the process, the fuel used and efficiency, flue gases can consist of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, trace amounts of oxygen and water vapor, and environmentally sensitive pollutants such as sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide and particulates. In addition to measuring the flow of flue gases for process control data, reporting is often mandated by environmental and regional air quality regulations.

Flue gas applications present several challenges in selecting the proper flow meter:
– Mixed composition gases
– Wet, hot and/or dirty gases
– Large and difficult to access pipes
– Wide flow range and distorted,
swirling flow profiles
FLUE GAS MONITORING
FCI thermal dispersion insertion flow meters provide a cost effective and accurate solution to flue gas flow measurement. These flow meters are designed to overcome the unique challenges of flue gas measurement and meet all of the above criteria. For line sizes up to 30 inches [760 mm], FCI single-point meters are typically applied. For larger line sizes, FCI multi-point systems provide up to 16 sensors to achieve flow averaging in large cross-sectional areas. Additionally, these FCI flow meters are direct mass flow measuring so that unlike volumetric flow techniques, there are no additional sensors to be purchased or installed to obtain mass flow.

Companies utilizing FCI flow meters for flue gas applications include US Steel, Kraft Foods, Georgia-Pacific, Dupont, Rohm & Haas, Shijiazhuang Refinery, ELF Atochem, Kemirea Pigments, Fundia Wire, Noranda Mining, and Foster-Wheeler Energy, among others.
Key Criteria For Flow Meter Selection
- Accurate and calibrated for mixed composition gases
- Low cost installation in large diameter pipes
- Single-point and multi-point solutions
- Mass flow measurement
- Non-clogging, no moving parts design for low maintenance
- Wide turndown for wide range flow measurement
- Remote mountable transmitter/electronics
- Temperature compensation
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